Yoga.ractices.efer.o the body's life force as prank or panic energy. Back Care Acupressure Therapy is highly effective for relieving muscular tension in all areas of the back. Medical acupuncture attempts to integrate reflexological concepts, the trigger point model, and anatomical insights such as dermatome distribution into acupuncture practice, and emphasizes a more formulaic approach to acupuncture point location. 65 Cosmetic acupuncture is the use of acupuncture in an attempt to reduce wrinkles on the face. 66 Bee venom acupuncture is a treatment approach of injecting purified, diluted bee venom into acupoints. 67 A 2006 review of veterinary acupuncture found that there is insufficient evidence to “recommend or reject acupuncture for any condition in domestic animals”. 68 Rigorous evidence for complementary and alternative techniques is lacking in veterinary medicine but evidence has been growing. 69 It is difficult but not impossible to design rigorous research trials for acupuncture. 70 71 Due to acupuncture's invasive nature, one of the major challenges in efficacy research is in the design of an appropriate placebo control group . 72 73 For efficacy studies to determine whether acupuncture has specific effects, “sham” forms of acupuncture where the patient, practitioner, and analyst are blinded seem the most acceptable approach. 70 Sham acupuncture uses non-penetrating needles or needling at non-acupuncture points, 74 e.g. inserting needles on meridians not related to the specific condition being studied, or in places not associated with meridians. 75 The under-performance of acupuncture in such trials may indicate that therapeutic effects are due entirely to non-specific effects, or that the sham treatments are not inert, or that systematic protocols yield less than optimal treatment. 76 77 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer review article found that “contrary to the claimed mechanism of redirecting the flow of qi through meridians, researchers usually find that it generally does not matter where the needles are inserted, how often that is, no dose-response effect is observed, or even if needles are actually inserted. Beauty Treatment: The Chinese used acupressure points as a beauty treatment for thousands of years. There is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians . 10 Proponents reply that ACM is a pre scientific system that continues to have practical relevance. Plinio Prioreschi, the earliest known historical record of acupuncture is the Shih-Chi “Record of History”, written by a historian around 100 BC. 29 It is believed that this text was documenting what was established practice at that time. 28 The 5,000-year-old mummified body of Ötzi the Iceman was found with 15 groups of tattoos, 266 many of which were located at points on the body where acupuncture needles are used for abdominal or lower back problems. They should be about 2 inches from the middle of your neck. Most therapies address the cognitive and emotional aspects of trauma, but do not get to the physiological source. Just as negative thoughts can block your energy flow, positive thoughts can increase your healing energy. Place the thumb at the canter of the crease of the wrist where the hand meets the wrist and then position it two finger widths away from the crease towards the elbow. Then, massage the spot in a downward motion with the finger for 4-5 seconds while releasing the hold. It includes a licensing exam and registration, as well as degree courses approved by the board. 298 Canada has acupuncture licensing programs in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta and Quebec; standards set by the Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture Association of Canada are used in provinces without government regulation. 285 Regulation in the US began in the 1970s 299 in California, which was eventually followed by every state but Wyoming and Idaho. 297 300 Licensing requirements vary greatly from state to state. More research is required to confirm the effectiveness of acupressure treatment .

It.s.laced on the floor and the foot is rolled back and forth over it. The study also includes warnings against practising acupuncture on infants, as well as on children who are over-fatigued, very weak, or have overeaten. 238 When used on children, acupuncture is considered safe when administered by well-trained, licensed practitioners using sterile needles; however, a 2011 review found there was limited research to draw definite conclusions about the overall safety of paediatric acupuncture. 5 The same review found 279 adverse events, 25 of them serious. 5 The adverse events were mostly mild in nature e.g. bruising or bleeding. 5 The prevalence of mild adverse events ranged from 10.1% to 13.5%, an estimated 168 incidences among 1,422 patients. 5 On rare occasions adverse events were serious e.g. cardiac rupture or hemoptysis ; much might have been a result of substandard practice. 5 The incidence of serious adverse events was 5 per one million, which included children and adults. 5 When used during pregnancy, the majority of adverse events caused by acupuncture were mild and transient, with few serious adverse events. 239 The most frequent mild adverse event was needling or unspecified pain, followed by bleeding. 239 Although two deaths one stillbirth and one neonatal death were reported, there was a lack of acupuncture-associated maternal mortality. 239 Limiting the evidence as certain, probable or possible in the causality evaluation, the estimated incidence of adverse events following acupuncture in pregnant women was 131 per 10,000. 239 Although acupuncture is not contraindicated in pregnant women, some specific acupuncture points are particularly sensitive to needle insertion; these spots, as well as the abdominal region, should be avoided during pregnancy. 2 Four adverse events associated with moxibustion were bruising, burns and cellulitis, spinal epidural abscess, and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. 17 Ten adverse events were associated with cupping. 17 The minor ones were keloid scarring, burns, and bullae ; 17 the serious ones were acquired haemophilia A, stroke following cupping on the back and neck, factitious panniculitis, reversible cardiac hypertrophy, and iron deficiency anaemia . 17 A 2013 meta-analysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where co morbid depression presented. 20 The same meta-analysis found there was no difference between sham and non-sham acupuncture. 20 A 2011 systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain. 21 A 2010 systematic review found that the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture could not be concluded. 94 A 2012 review found that acupuncture seems to be cost-effective for some pain conditions. 240 Risk of forgoing conventional medical care As with other alternative medicines, unethical or naive practitioners may induce patients to exhaust financial resources by pursuing ineffective treatment. 7 241 Profession ethical codes set by accrediting organizations such as the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine require practitioners to make “timely referrals to other health care professionals as may be appropriate.” 242 Stephen Barrett states that there is a “risk that an acupuncturist whose approach to diagnosis is not based on scientific concepts will fail to diagnose a dangerous condition”. 243 Main articles: Qi, Traditional Chinese medicine, Meridian Chinese medicine, and Acupuncture point Old Chinese medical chart of acupuncture meridians Acupuncture is a substantial part of traditional Chinese medicine ACM. 6 Early acupuncture beliefs relied on concepts that are common in ACM, such as a life force energy called qi. 244 Qi was believed to flow from the body's primary organs zang-fu organs to the “superficial” body tissues of the skin, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints, citation needed through channels called meridians. 245 Acupuncture points where needles are inserted are mainly but not always found at locations along the meridians. 246 Acupuncture points not found along a meridian are called extraordinary points and those with no designated site are called “A-shi” points. 246 In ACM, disease is generally perceived as a disharmony or imbalance in energies such as yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians, and of the interaction between the body and the environment. 247 Therapy is based on which “pattern of disharmony” can be identified. 248 249 For example, some diseases are believed to be caused by meridians being invaded with an excess of wind, cold, and damp. 250 In order to determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners examine things like the colon and shape of the tongue, the relative strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of breathing, or the sound of the voice. 251 252 ACM and its concept of disease does not strongly differentiate between the cause and effect of symptoms. 253 Scientific research has not supported the existence of qi, meridians, or yin and yang. n 1 25 26 A Nature editorial described ACM as “fraught with pseudo-science”, with the majority of its treatments having no logical mechanism of action . 254 Quackwatch states that “ACM theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community. This can lessen the appearance of wrinkles without drugs or surgery.

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